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Radiation Dose and Cancer Risk

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Radiation Dose and Cancer Risk

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Radiation Hazard

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“O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker.”  Psalms 95:6 (KJV) 

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Listen to the article below

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[fusion_dropcap boxed=”no” boxed_radius=”” class=”” id=”” color=”” text_color=””]A[/fusion_dropcap]s a result of many decades of research, the health impacts of radiation are very well-understood. In a 2016 report, “Radiation: Effects and Sources,” the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) noted:

We know more about the sources and effects of exposure to [ionizing] radiation than to almost any other hazardous agent, and the scientific community is constantly updating and analysing its knowledge…. The sources of radiation causing the greatest exposure of the general public are not necessarily those that attract the most attention.

Current radiation-protection standards assume that any dose of radiation, no matter how small, involves a risk to human health. This assumption, a deliberately highly conservative assumption that runs counter to scientific knowledge, is the basis for the linear no-threshold (LNT) dose-response model, which is increasingly being questioned by the scientific community.

Dr. Edward Calabrese of the University of Massachusetts School of Public Health & Health Sciences in Amherst has extensively documented the flawed origin of the LNT model. The Health Physics Society offers a series of videos, The History of the LNT Episode Guide (hps.org), with Dr. Calabrese, to examine the history of this controversial radiation-effects model.

My previous article, Dispelling Irrational Fear of Radiation, addressed a derived ionizing radiation metric called the equivalent dose, which is defined as the product of radiation absorbed dose and the radiation quality factor. The quality factor accounts for the general interaction differences of each radiation type with biological matter.

Another derived metric, called the effective dose, defined as the product of equivalent dose and a specific biological tissue weighting factor, was introduced by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007 (ICRP Publication 103). Its purpose was to set radiation-protection limits for exposure to radiation and intakes of radionuclides by workers and members of the public.

Both equivalent dose and effective dose are derived metrics because they are not directly measurable. Moreover, they imply a known relationship between measured physical quantities and their biological effect. An underlying assumption is that random probability effects of low-dose radiation increase linearly with equivalent dose. And while tissue-weighting factors are intended to account for organ and tissue radiosensitivities, they represent only approximate contributions to the assumed total risk of radiation damage.

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